Robot’s sticky feet could aid space missions (w/ Video) The Smart Stick bends similar to the way that spider legs bend. A pressurized fluid runs through the actuator tube (green), causing the elliptical mini-tube to swell and the joints to bend. The fluid can be controlled to cause the Smart Stick to bend in different shapes. Image credit: Carlo Menon and Cristian Lira. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. “Space applications require structures, mechanisms and systems that are able to fulfill challenging tasks, while keeping their volumes and masses to a minimum,” wrote the scientists, emphasizing the importance of gossamer structures in the space field. “By folding and deforming the mini-tube, mechanical connectors are avoided, making the system simple, reliable and light.”Besides consisting of light materials, inflatable mechanisms must also confront high-energy particles, charged particles, and solar and space radiation when traveling beyond earth. In this premier run, Menon and Lira developed Smart Stick for Earth conditions, and predict that Smart Stick’s future will depend on using more flexible materials and incorporating a closed fluid loop in the system. A closed loop would increase the hydraulic pressure as well as overcome challenges such as leakage and outgassing required for space travel. “Lightweight joints could potentially be integrated in several space mechanisms,” Menon said. “For example, they could be implemented in miniaturized robotic systems of sample distributed units, in miniaturized grippers, or embedded in foldable/deployable systems.”Even if it takes a bit more time for Smart Stick to encounter space, the scientists already have ideas for terrestrial uses for the fluid actuator component of Smart Stick. Lira is also investigating a wearable, elastic textile called “variable structure fabric” that comfortably improves people’s posture, which is especially useful when working conditions call for long periods of standing or sitting.”The actuators in ‘Variable Structure Fabric (VSF)’ involve a new conceptual design of miniaturized fluidic actuators, which are then inserted in cloth items,” explains Lira’s Web page (VSFproject.com). “Uses for it [include] upholstery, technical clothing, underwear, and vehicle interior linings (based on Smart Stick).”Citation: Menon, C. and Lira C. “Active articulation for future space applications inspired by the hydraulic system of spiders.” Bioinspiration and Biomimetics. 1 (2006) 52-61.By Lisa Zyga, Copyright 2006 PhysOrg.com Citation: Future space devices inspired by spider legs (2006, September 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2006-09-future-space-devices-spider-legs.html Are spiders ideal space travelers? Not quite, but according to a new study, their legs may be. Scientists Carlo Menon and Cristian Lira have designed and built lightweight, bendable joints based on the micro-hydraulic joint system of spider legs. The duo’s inflatable “Smart Stick” must overcome many of the harsh conditions of space, such as temperature range, pressure and atmospheric composition. In a recent issue of Bioinspiration and Biomimetics, Menon and Lira explain how most animals use muscles to bend their joints, but spiders don’t possess such extensors. Instead, these boneless arachnids have legs that are attached to the prosoma, or the main body, which pumps out fluid into the legs by contracting and expanding. Although spiders don’t have veins or even true blood, a pressurized liquid called haemolymph fills the open spaces throughout a spider’s body.”Our research approach is to find inspiration from nature to conceive new space engineering systems,” Menon told PhysOrg.com. “We realized that the characteristics of spiders’ hydraulic systems fit the need of great miniaturization and high force/mass ration required by space actuators.” The scientists’ Smart Stick, at 1 mm in diameter, is only slightly larger than a real spider’s leg. With one joint, the stick can bend about 1.8 degrees, and the scientists have developed a simple, modular system that enables the connection of several elastic joints for further bending. Each module consists of an inflatable elastic actuator that separates different segments, and a tube runs between each joint. To bend the Smart Stick, water in the tube is pressurized, causing the elastic actuators to fill with water and push the segments apart (see figure). Sensors measure the pressure and then provide feedback to the control unit, where more or less water is pressurized. Like other spiders, this Mexican Redknee (Brachypelma Smithii) tarantula bends its legs not with muscles and bones but with a pressurized fluid system that extends and contracts the joints. Scientists have created devices for space robots and even clothing based on the spider mechanism. Photo credit: Jurgen E. Haug.
New X-ray source in nearby galaxy spawns mystery © 2011 PhysOrg.com Journal information: Science Because only a few photons emitted from a binary star system are able to make their way to our planet, what we are able to see is quite limited. Because of this, very few binary star systems have been found. To get around this problem, the researchers turned to the Large Area Telescope that is part of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Rather than being aimed at specific points in the sky, it scans whole swaths over periods of several hours. In so doing it of course, comes across all sorts of signals. The team studied the signals that were found during one such scan and then picked out some likely candidates, then traced the signals back to their origin. One such trace revealed, for the first time, a binary star system that had been found by a systematic approach: 1FGL J1018.6-5856.What scientists know so far is that binary star systems come in two varieties; those that are microquasars, and those that are described as pulsating.Microquasars are believed to come about due to black holes pulling another star closer, creating fast jets at the top and bottom. The other, a pulsating system comes about, it is thought, when at least one of the stars in the system is a pulsating neutron star. In such a system, the two stars circle each other.The new binary discovered in the study is believed to be of the second type and emits a huge amount of gamma-rays (electromagnetic radiation of very high frequency) and lesser amounts of x-ray emissions, though the team believes that as the spin of the two stars slows, the relative amounts of radiation emitted by each will likely switch. The researchers also believe the pulsating nature of the star system was hidden by solar winds, which is why it wasn’t spotted until now.Based on their results, the team is optimistic that the same approach they’ve used can be used to find other binary systems, which would add immeasurably to the body of science surrounding such systems. More information: Science 13 January 2012: Vol. 335 no. 6065 pp. 175-176 DOI: 10.1126/science.1215895 Citation: Binary star system found by following gamma-ray signal (2012, January 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2012-01-binary-star-gamma-ray.html (PhysOrg.com) — To find a binary star system, which is where two stars are in close proximity to one another, astronomers have traditionally relied on pure luck. They’d first start studying what would look like a single star, then look for a radiation signal that would provide them with more information. Such a system clearly isn’t the best approach to finding such binaries, so a group of researchers have turned the tables around so to speak, as they describe in their paper published in Science, and have found a binary by first finding its gamma-ray signal and then tracing it back to its origin. Explore further This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only.
Citation: Researchers propose foundering of lower island-arc crust explains continental Moho (2013, December 5) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2013-12-foundering-island-arc-crust-continental-moho.html © 2013 Phys.org (Phys.org) —Oliver Jagoutz of MIT and Mark Behn of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution are suggesting in a paper they’ve had published in the journal Nature, that foundering of lower island-arc crust can explain characteristics of the origin of continental Moho. This is a geophysical map showing the position of the Moho discontinuity across the Earth. The Moho is the boundary between the Earth’s crust and the mantle. Credit: AllenMcC/Wikipedia. It’s been nearly a century since seismologist Andrija Mohorovicic discovered that seismic waves traveled faster through the crust at a deeper point—approximately 25 miles down below the continents. That changeover point has since been named the continental Moho, after him. Since that time, scientists have spent considerable effort trying to explain why it’s there, but haven’t had much luck because it’s too deep to study directly. Adding to the mystery is that it doesn’t exist beneath volcanic island chains that rise above tectonic plates. In this new effort Jagoutz and Behn offer what they believe is a reasonable explanation for what has been observed—it’s all about foundering, they say.Foundering is where something sinks in water—ships founder at sea for example. In this case, the foundering, the researchers say, occurs beneath the crust—molten material hardens as it cools leaving a gap between the crust and the mantle. Foundering occurs when material from the ceiling above, falls in the mantle below. The researchers describe it as a type of crystalline rain, falling into the mantle—and whether it happens or not depends on how much heat is present. When it does occur, eventually the gap is filled and the formation of a Moho is complete.To come to these conclusions, the two researchers looked at data that describe rock samples found in Alaska and Pakistan—both have been proven to have made their way to the surface after formation some 25 miles down below, i.e. at the depth of continental Mohos—but only one showed evidence of having come from an actual Moho. The Pakistani rocks showed no sharp density contrast consistent with a Moho type boundary.This can be explained, the two researchers say, by heat distribution far below the surface. When there is sufficient heat (such as is found near volcanic areas) there is foundering, leading to the development of a Moho—when there is not, there is no such development. Seismic data backs up their claim, they say, suggesting that foundering may be the long sought answer to the question of how Mohos form. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nature Explore further More information: Foundering of lower island-arc crust as an explanation for the origin of the continental Moho, Nature 504, 131–134 (05 December 2013) DOI: 10.1038/nature12758AbstractA long-standing theory for the genesis of continental crust is that it is formed in subduction zones. However, the observed seismic properties of lower crust and upper mantle in oceanic island arcs differ significantly from those in the continental crust4. Accordingly, significant modifications of lower arc crust must occur, if continental crust is indeed formed from island arcs. Here we investigate how the seismic characteristics of arc crust are transformed into those of the continental crust by calculating the density and seismic structure of two exposed sections of island arc (Kohistan and Talkeetna). The Kohistan crustal section is negatively buoyant with respect to the underlying depleted upper mantle at depths exceeding 40 kilometres and is characterized by a steady increase in seismic velocity similar to that observed in active arcs. In contrast, the lower Talkeetna crust is density sorted, preserving only relicts (about ten to a hundred metres thick) of rock with density exceeding that of the underlying mantle. Specifically, the foundering of the lower Talkeetna crust resulted in the replacement of dense mafic and ultramafic cumulates by residual upper mantle, producing a sharp seismic discontinuity at depths of around 38 to 42 kilometres, characteristic of the continental Mohorovičić discontinuity (the Moho). Dynamic calculations indicate that foundering is an episodic process that occurs in most arcs with a periodicity of half a million to five million years. Moreover, because foundering will continue after arc magmatism ceases, this process ultimately results in the formation of the continental Moho. Mapping the Moho with GOCE
Top view of the cavity for various frequencies of actuation of the silicon membrane and the corresponding modes (m,n) . The white dashed lines have been plotted to help visualize the nodal lines and circles. Credit: (c) Physical Review Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.184501 More information: Gaël Vuillermet et al. Chladni Patterns in a Liquid at Microscale, Physical Review Letters (2016). DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.116.184501ABSTRACTBy means of ultrathin silicon membranes excited in the low ultrasound range, we show for the first time that it is possible to form two-dimensional Chladni patterns of microbeads in liquid. Unlike the well-known effect in a gaseous environment at the macroscale, where gravity effects are generally dominant, leading particles towards the nodal regions of displacement, we show that the combined effects of an ultrathin plate excited at low frequency (yielding to subsonic waves) together with reduced gravity (arising from buoyancy) will enhance the importance of microstreaming in the Chladni problem. Here, we report that for micrometric beads larger than the inner streaming layer, the microscale streaming in the vicinity of the plate tends to gather particles in antinodal regions of vibrations yielding to patterns in good agreement with the predicted modes for a liquid-loaded plate. Interestingly, a symmetry breaking phenomenon together with the streaming can trigger movements of beads departing from one cluster to another. We show that, for higher modes, this movement can appear as a collective rotation of the beads in the manner of a “farandole.” © 2016 Phys.org This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Physical Review Letters Explore further
Those of you for whom malls are for every occasion, shopping malls across the city have readied themselves with their Christmas best. So grab your friends and family and head for the mall, because soaking in the spirit need not equal to spending money. At a Rajouri garden mall, there are a plethora of activities and delicious food to be had. A huge castle gate welcomes you into a Christmas themed Dreamland. The major highlights are a magic show by Anjaan from India’s Got Talent, dance competitions and fashion shows for all age groups, 3D animated laser shows and photo booths. Get yourself clicked with live characters and Santa Claus. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Another mall in Saket has live Santas, a 40-feet high Christmas tree put up, personalised Santa shop goodies like stockings, hats, ornaments with names on them, a candy town with cookies, chocolates, cakes, candy and treats. Also, there are musical performances by Monku and the gang and Wizard of Oz and games and rides.At a mall in Vasant Kunj, designer Manav Gangwani has designed the Christmas tree. Expect artfully draped Swarovski crystal chains on a golden frame, winding up on an internally lit central structure. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe pop up store at this mall has an exclusive range of Christmas products. Customers walking into the pop-up store will get a fresh range of exclusively designed and manufactured products which have been handcrafted exclusively by the most reputed brands and designers.Another mall next door has created Kiddyland. There is a Candy Cane Christmas Tree which will shower hundreds of candies on the Christmas day. Kids can also dig into Chocó-land to take home goodies.Chefs will help them create Christmas cookie masterpieces which can be hung up on the tree.So don’t burn your pockets, just have loads of fun!
Just about an hour away from the Capital in Manesar, far from the hustle bustle of the city, in the midst of nature, is the chance to get away from it all, kicking off with the First Prelude of the Escape Festival – Escape Retreats (Prelude I).This edition is a precursor to the main Escape Festival, which takes place annually at Naukuchiatal and has made a name for itself as a space, which celebrates an alternate culture.Escape Retreats will feature artistes from various genres of music with performances across Saturday evening. The idea of Escape Retreats is to bring weekend retreats for people within the precincts of the city and recreate the overall experience and ambience of the main festival. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The highlight of Escape Retreats (Prelude I) is the carefully handpicked musical line-up which leads you through a magical evening under the stars with various genres of music. The first set includes some good old classic rock along with some African fusion music and foot pumping Jazz funk music, while the second set will be more of Electronica.The aim is to bring together established and upcoming artistes in a unique space where the music changes across the course of an electric evening. The musical line-up includes well known names from Delhi like Grey Area, White Wizard, an electronic act from the city; while there is also an interesting band like Chalo Africa, a band which plays an eclectic rendition of Congolese music styles, western classical music, as well as Salsa Reggae and R & B. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixThe two electronic acts from Goa up the ante and the tempo of the evening. JJJ brings cutting edge no nonsense dance music, while Giuseppe is a pioneer in electronic psychedelic trance.The Escape Festival started in May 2009 when a few musicians and like-minded people decided to get away from New Delhi for a few days. They chose a picturesque resort at Naukuchiatal, at the foothills of The Himalayas which became their Escape. Escape, has grown since then to become one of India’s foremost outdoor and first camping festival.
Art lovers should mark 11 July in their calendars because India Habitat Centre will open its doors to artist Aruna Tewari. Tewari, a roseate student of art, known across the artistic acreage for her oeuvres in varied skills of pencil sketching, acrylics, amongst other art forms and she will be hosting a solo exhibition of works titled Dimensions of Love at the Visual Art Gallery, IHC. Dimensions of Love is a refreshing and expressive approach to a life of bliss and accomplishment. The artist believes that love is mystique so it cannot be defined. Love is infinite so it cannot be confined. ‘We have our own ways and means to experience and express love. Love is compassion in aloofness, humane in wilderness, faith in disbelief, hope in distress, sunshine in winter, cool breeze in summer, water in desert and fresh flowers of spring. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’Love therefore, is elixir of life. Love leads us through difficult times enabling us to endure adversity and never fails in supporting us. None in this world can ever claim to be unaffected by this great emotion called love,’ says Tewari. Tewari being conscious of the fact that great work of art entails combinations of technique and emotion, works on the themes of Mystic Womanhood and ever-encompassing Sentiments of Love, and presents her canvas of imaginations at the exhibition. Also Read – Leslie doing new comedy special with NetflixA refreshing and expressive approach to a life of bliss and accomplishment, the artworks celebrate Love as the most beautiful emotion in the world and presents it as the essential need of all living creatures.Being omnipresent in the universe like God, Love is compassion in aloofness, humane in wilderness, faith in disbelief, hope in distress, sunshine in winter, cool breeze in summer, water in desert and fresh flowers of spring; therefore being the elixir of life. This emotion is celebrated by the bold hues and colours from Tewari’s palette, by portraying the various dimensions of love, through the images of women who experience love in its most profound form. ‘What I envisage in my works of Art is love, purity and serenity as in my view these are the essence of a soul. I avoid sadness or negativity in my works, as in today’s chaotic world we are already surrounded by these. I hope people would experience love, peace and joy while gazing at my works,’ explains Tewari. Promises to be quite a treat so make sure you don’t miss it. WHEN: 11 to 15 JulyWHERE: Visual Arts Gallery, India Habitat Centre
The programme that starts that 10 am will feature a talk by Rich Rice, Associate Professor, and University of Texas Tech, USA. It will be based on the topic – Multimodal Composing in and Beyond the Academy. Following the talk will feature Atul Krishna Binodini Devi creative writing competition in English in the genres – autobiographical writing. The theme will be given on the spot. The first three winner of the competition will bag a rolling trophy and an amount of Rs 2500, 1500, 1000 respectively with a consolation prize of Rs 500 each. Also Read – ‘Playing Jojo was emotionally exhausting’The fest will further have Quizzards, the Lit Quiz where the first three winners will get prize money of Rs 1000, 750, 500 respectively. The quiz will be followed by Performatix, the enactment competition where participants will have to create and enact an original scene around a quote (pick your quote when you register). It holds prize money of Rs 1500, 1000 and 750 for the first three winners. When: 19 September Where: Janaki Devi Memorial College Timing: 10 am onwards