Assessors Janet Henzen-du Toit (left) and Themba Mazibuko (right) flank Judge Tokozile Masipa (top, centre) at Oscar Pistorius’ trial. The assessors are allowed to overrule the judge on a verdict. (Image: Screenshot from court feed)• Advocate Mannie WitzThe Bridge Group of Advocates+27 82 891 [email protected] ChibbaTwo solemn figures sit beside Judge Thokozile Masipa as she presides over the Oscar Pistorius trial in the North Gauteng High Court, Pretoria. They are entirely silent; only their hands are animated, scribbling notes as the witnesses testify. They might maintain a placid demeanour, but they have enough power to decide the Paralympian’s fate.For these are the trial assessors. Themba Mazibuko and Janet Henzen-du Toit were appointed by Judge Masipa before the trial began. They are there to help the judge decide whether Pistorius is guilty or not. Despite the media hype surrounding the case, not much has been said about the two assessors.Mannie Witz, an advocate with the Bridge Group at the Johannesburg Bar, says Mazibuko is “fresh out of university” and comes from an academic background. Other than that, little is known about him.Henzen-du Toit, on the other hand, is well known as an advocate who has defended murders and rapes, says Witz. She joined the Pretoria Bar in 1998, before leaving for the Rebel Bar in North West in 2003. She became a member of the National Forum of Advocates in 2005 and also presided over trials as an assessor during this period. In 2006, she returned to Pretoria and joined the Legal Aid Board. In 2010, she became a unit manager in the South Gauteng High Court in Johannesburg.A profile of Henzen-du Toit published by Beeld newspaper earlier this month pointed out that she was an expert in criminal justice. She has an Honours degree in psychology and Master’s degree in criminal justice and criminal prosecution. She is working on a doctorate in criminal law, criminal prosecution, evidence and constitutional interpretation.On Friday, 28 March, Henzen-du Toit fell ill, forcing Judge Thokozile Masipa to adjourn the trial for a week. Without Henzen-duToit, Masipa said the court would not be properly constituted. The assessor was taken to a hospital in Pretoria. Though details about her illness was not made public, The Times said her condition was not life threatening. Assessors are necessaryWitz explains that assessors are usually former magistrates and advocates, and in many cases, academics much like Mazibuko. To be chosen as an assessor, one must first put one’s name forward and join a pool of assessors. When a judge decides he or she needs an assessor for a particular court case, the person is chosen from this pool.Assessors are a great help for judges when it comes to presiding over high profile cases, Witz adds. “Although Judge Masipa is more than capable of handling the [Pistorius] case on her own, having two assessors will help. For a judge presiding over a case like [this], it’s a lot to take in. The judge may be disturbed during the trial, she may not hear something correctly, or she may have a lapse in concentration. But the assessors can pick up what the judge has missed. They can also be consulted when she is reviewing the facts of the case.”South Africa’s system of using assessors to help presiding officers decide on a verdict is more effective than the US’s jury system, whose decisions can be subjective, he says. Additionally, assessors are legally trained whereas juries are made up of laypeople without any experience in law. “You wouldn’t want a layperson, who is an Afrikaner, making a decision in [Pistorius’s] case.”Henry Lerm, an attorney at the Uitenhage Justice Centre, says assessors are needed as magistrates and judges often lack the expertise and technical and scientific knowledge to match the experts who testify in cases before them.In an article about the importance of assessors in high courts, published by the Southern African Legal Information Institute, he explains that the expert assessor’s role developed out of the judges’ inability to competently preside over complex cases. Assessors are skilled in the matters they are presiding over and can therefore help avoid a miscarriage of justice. “A second head with the requisite knowledge, experience and skill of reasoning in the relevant field will serve as a potential benefit, saving litigation costs and raising public confidence in the judicial system,” Lerm adds. The assessor’s roleBoth Mazibuko and Henzen-du Toit sit with Judge Masipa during the proceedings and listen to all the evidence presented to her. However, Witz says assessors are only there to help the judge decide the verdict. “They are only meant [to] try on the facts and can overrule the judge. But they can only overrule her on the facts. When it comes to sentencing they play no role whatsoever.”According to Professor Annette van der Merwe, a criminal procedure law expert at the University of Pretoria, if the two assessors were to rule in favour of murder, or the judge and one assessor were to rule so, that verdict would be the accepted one. The same would apply if two of them were to rule in favour of an acquittal.
8 Best WordPress Hosting Solutions on the Market Top Reasons to Go With Managed WordPress Hosting Tags:#biz#tips A Web Developer’s New Best Friend is the AI Wai… audrey watters The new feature is just one of a number of additions that LinkedIn has made that showcase its use of big data. Why Tech Companies Need Simpler Terms of Servic… Professional network LinkedIn has just introduced the beta launch of a new feature LinkedIn Skills, a way for you to search for particular skills and expertise, and of course, showcase your own and in LinkedIn’s words, “a whole new way to understand the landscape of skills & expertise, who has them, and how it’s changing over time.”The new feature lets you search for particular areas of expertise and points to you to some of the key people within that community. It also highlights related companies and jobs, professional organizations you can join, and top locations where that skill is in demand.All of that is great for making and building professional networks. But more interesting, perhaps, particularly for business analysis, LinkedIn Skills also tracks the demand for these skills and records how it is changing. You can compare the growth of one particular skill next to another – the increasing demand for those who work with Hadoop, for example, and the decreasing call those skilled in ballet. Related Posts
Playback / NavigationTimelineZoom In / Out on TimelineVideo Track HeightAudio Track Height RotationX, Y, or Z Add to Both Ends of ClipsAdditive DissolveNon-Additive DissolveFilm DissolveCross DissolveDip To BlackDip To White Basic EditingSelect AllDeselect AllUndoRedoCopyCutPastePaste AttributesPaste InsertInsertSnap Toggle CreativeIntensityFaded FilmSharpenVibranceSaturationTine Balance After Effects Palette Gear Module OptionsAnyone who’s mastered keyboard shortcuts will have a hard time taking their hands off the keyboard to reach for a dial, button, or slider.Buttons in After EffectsModify LayerSet In PointSet Out PointToggle ShyToggle SoloToggle EnableToggle LockSet KeyframeQualitySampling QualityNew Composition from SelectionNew CompositionPreviewDefaultCopyCutPasteUndoRedoSaveOpenDials in After EffectsModify CompositionWidthHeightDurationLayer PropertiesAdjust Selected PropertiesLayer SelectionOpacityAudio LevelsStart PointBlend ModeAnchor PointX, Y, or Z VignetteAmountMidpointRoundnessFeather EditingNext Edit PointTrack ControlSelect Track OrientationX, Y, or Z Effects & TransitionsOpacityMotionScaleScale WidthAnti-flicker Filter General AdjustmentsAdjust any propertyAdjust any property (large)Sliders in Premiere Pro Editing ToolsSelectionTrack Select ForwardTrack Select BackwardRipple EditRolling EditRate StretchRazorSlipSlidePenHandZoom Playback / NavigationTimelineZoom to SequenceZoom In on TimelineZoom Out on TimelineIncrease Video Track HeightDecrease Video Track HeightIncrease Audio Track HeightDecrease Audio Track Height Audio EffectsFill Left With RightFill Right With Left VignetteAmountMidpointRoundnessFeather Add to End of ClipsAdditive DissolveNon-Additive DissolveFilm DissolveCross DissolveDip To BlackDip To White Toggle SoloActive, Master, A1-A6 Clip ControlMake SubclipNext ClipPrevious ClipReverse ClipLink / Unlink ClipsGroup ClipsUngroup ClipsNext ClipsSpeed / DurationNudge Clip UpNudge Clip DownNudge Clip Left (1 Frame)Nudge Clip Left (5 Frames)Nudge Clip Right (1 Frame)Nudge Clip Right (5 Frames)Snap to Next ClipSnap to Previous ClipSelect Top Clip PanelMaximize / Minimize PanelMaximize / Minimize Hovered PanelNext PanelPrevious PanelLumetri PanelEffect Control PanelProgram Monitor PanelSource Monitor PanelAudio Clip Mixer PanelAudio Track Mixer PanelEffects PanelMedia Browser PanelProjects Panel Audio EffectsVolume LevelLeft Channel VolumeRight Channel Volume Toggle Selection Follows PlayheadPlay / StopShuttle Left SlowShuttle Right SlowShuttle StopWorkspaceWorkspace 1, 2-9Audio MixerToggle Mixer Control ModeNext TrackPrevious TrackCycle Automation ModesActive, Master, A1-A6 Lumetri ColorReset Lumetri SettingsEditingRipple DeleteRazor All TracksNext Edit PointPrevious Edit PointTrack ControlSelect Next TrackSelect Previous TrackLock Audio TracksLock Video TracksSync Lock Selected TrackHide Selected Video Track PanActive, Master, A1-A6 Toggle MuteActive, Master, A1-A6 PositionX, Y, or Z ScaleAll, X, Y, or Z Clip ControlSnap ClipsSelect ClipsNudge Clip Lumetri ColorBasic CorrectionHDR WhiteTemperatureTintExposureContrastHighlightsShadowsWhitesBlacksHDR SpecularSaturation PanelCycle Panels CurvesHDR Range PanActive, A1-A6 Video EffectsDrop ShadowWarp StabilizerBlur & SharpenCamera BlurChannel BlurCompound BlurDirectional BlurGaussian BlurSharpenUnsharp Mask ShuttleAudio MixerCycle Active TrackVolumeActive, Master, A1-A6 MarkerSet In PointSet Out PointAdd MarkerClear InClear OutClear In and OutClear All MarkersLiftExtract Audio EffectsVolume LevelLeft Channel VolumeRight Channel Volume HSL SecondaryDenoiseBlurTemperatureTintContrastSharpenSaturation CreativeIntensityFaded FilmSharpenVibranceSaturationTine Balance This is an amazing piece of equipment for photo editors, but will the Palette Gear stand out for video editors?The Palette Gear is certainly one of the most talked about panels around, and rightfully so. The modular device not only looks cool, but the build quality is also fantastic. This device just feels good. Powerful magnets for easy connections, well-lit attachments that indicate a connection, solid weight — this is not a cheap plastic toy.The Palette Gear was first developed in 2012, and eventually it became a successful Kickstarter campaign. Now that it is fully available to the public, the controller is finding its way into the hands of many creatives. Photographers and photo editors have resoundingly fallen in love with the Palette Gear for it’s spectacular abilities and speed in Adobe Lightroom. But what about video editors? Can the Palette Gear help speed up your workflow? Let’s take a look at current capabilities, and talk about the device’s strengths and weaknesses.The Palette Gear Modules and KitsThe Palette Gear is compatible with Mac and Windows. Of all the various modules, the core is the actual brains of the operation.The core’s USB connection powers all the connected modules, so there is no need for any A/C power. The core features a color OLED screen that displays the program you are working in, as well as the profile name — meaning you can create multiple profiles for various tasks or other editors. From the core, you can then magnetically attach buttons, dials, and sliders in countless variations.Buttons are single-click arcade-style controls. Like all the other modules, they feature a light up edge — the color of which you can customize to keep track of what each module does.Dials are knob controls that also feature button functionality for additional tasks. These are by far the most powerful tools in the entire set.Sliders are simple up-down or left-right controls. They are not mechanical, so they are not as accurate as they could be. More on the sliders later.The Palette Gear is available in three different kits — Starter, Expert, and Professional. The Starter Kit starts at $199 and includes the core, two buttons, a dial, and a slider. The $299 Expert Kit (which this article is reviewing) includes a core, two buttons, three dials, and two sliders. The Professional Kit will set you back $499 and comes with the core, four buttons, six dials, and four sliders.Additionally, you can purchase individual modules for additional customization. Buttons are available for $29 each, and dials and sliders will cost you $49 each. In total, the Palette Gear can support up to 18 modules.The modules are incredibly easy to snap together. Simply connect the pins to the pads. They will magnetically snap together. The modules then light up to indicate successful connections. If you don’t get a light, turn the module and connect it from another side.Setup is equally simple. After installing the PaletteApp, you will see options to create profiles for each of the various programs. The app will display the modules as you connect them. Then you simply click on each module and assign a task to each button, dial, and slider.The Palette Gear Supported ProgramsTo date, the Palette Gear supports FCPX and a majority of Adobe Creative Cloud programs such as Photoshop, Lightroom, and After Effects. The Palette is still in Beta for Premiere Pro and Audition. You can also configure the Palette Gear to replicate keyboard shortcuts and act as a MIDI device. It is currently in Beta to work as a modular Joystick for gamers.There is also a community dedicated to creating and sharing Palette profiles. You can find detailed profiles for Lightroom, like concert photography, basic retouching, temperature control, and more. There are also plenty of keyboard shortcut profiles and custom-mapped programs like Chrome browser hotkeys, Reddit enhancement suite, iTunes, and Spotify.Update: According to a representative at Palette, FCPX is still in Beta.The Palette Gear Capabilities for Video EditorsTo put the Palette Gear through the process for video editors, we ran tests on Premiere Pro, After Effects, and Final Cut Pro X. The results were pretty similar in each test. You’ll immediately want to start mapping as much as you can. It’s fun to try and figure out the best setup, and to program the Palette to your liking.The Palette Gear shines during tasks like color control, which is why it really is great for photo editors. For video editors, most of our repetitive tasks are already keyboard shortcuts. The longer the Palette was on the desk while editing, it became easier to just fall back into using keyboard shortcuts. For video editors, there is no real increase to your editing speed.As for color control, if you are a Premiere Pro editor doing color work in the Lumetri panel, you can map the Palette Gear to help with the overall color grade. Here is a quick glance from Palette.The dials are pretty good for fine tuning, but they are very sensitive. When setting a dial to control exposure, there were times where I would get the image just right, but as I removed my hand from the dial, my thumb would sometimes slightly touch the dial and that would be enough to adjust the image. You can actually solve this issue in the Advanced menu of the PaletteApp. I found lowering the sensitivity gave me better control. You can also press down on the dial to reset.The Palette Gear’s biggest weakness is the slider. The slider is not a mechanical slider, so there is no way to finely control tasks. There is also no true zero-point or middle notch to put the slider back to zero. The slightest movement on the slider can make massive adjustments, and there is no way to reverse that movement without really over-correcting in the opposite direction.Now, you can go into the PaletteApp and lower the slider’s range to prevent very drastic changes — but you are then limiting the slider’s capabilities. I found myself having to use the mouse to double-click on the Temperature and Tint controls in the Lumetri panel to reset them. Since I already move the cursor to those controls, I would then just use the digital sliders in Premiere Pro. In FCPX, the sliders literally do nothing. They are not currently compatible with any FCPX tasks.The sliders were also the only modules that ever gave me trouble. While rearranging the modules to find the best setup, there were a few times where everything was connected but the slider. No matter what I tried, I couldn’t get them to reconnect. I restarted the app to no avail. I cycled the Palette’s power by unplugging the USB cable, and when reconnected, the sliders powered back on.Outside of the Lumetri color controls in Premiere Pro, I didn’t find the Palette Gear to be very much help with actual video editing in Premiere Pro. The same goes for After Effects. There is a definite sci-fi feel to rendering at the push of a button, but Palette Gear’s biggest enemy is the keyboard shortcut. As for FCPX, there was really no point in even mapping the Palette. It doesn’t really do anything in Final Cut Pro X.Any seasoned editor has already mastered the keyboard shortcuts they need. The Palette Gear can be helpful with less-common tasks, but then it’s just a hassle to have the panel connected and the PaletteApp running at all times. (If you have many external hard drives already taking up USB ports, you are very unlikely to even plug in the Palette Gear.)Like I said before, the Palette Gear is still in Beta for Premiere Pro. I am expecting the future Palette models and modules to have even better controls when it comes to color grading, but as far as actual repetitive editing tasks — it’s hard to tell. I will say this: the Palette Gear is a lot of fun, but sometimes you need to work and don’t have time to play.For colorists, you may find the Palette Gear to be a suitable budget panel. For Lightroom photo editors, it’s a fantastic tool. For video editors, there is still much to be desired.For a full breakdown of available options, the following are all the mappable options based on the available programs and Palette Gear modules.Premiere Pro Palette Gear Module OptionsEven in Beta, the Palette Gear has more options in Premiere Pro than FCPX and After Effects. Each module can replicate nearly any simple task. Though the list of options for Premiere Pro is long, there aren’t any magical time-saving tasks to map to the Palette Gear. Everything here is a pretty standard control.Buttons in Premiere ProAdd Color MatteRenderAllAudioPreviewIn to OutEffects & TransitionsRemove TransitionsRemove EffectsVideo TransitionsAdd to Front of ClipsAdditive DissolveNon-Additive DissolveFilm DissolveCross DissolveDip To BlackDip To White Cycle Automation ModesActive, Master, A1-A6 HSL SecondaryDenoiseBlurTemperatureTintContrastSharpenSaturation Audio MixerVolumeActive, Master, A1-A6 ProjectNew ProjectNew SequenceImportImport from Media BrowserExportSave AsClose ProjectNew BinSelect Next SequenceDials in Premiere ProPlayheadEffects & TransitionsOpacityMotionPosition XPosition YScaleScale WidthRotationAnchor Point XAnchor Point YAnti-flicker Filter Toggle RecordActive, Master, A1-A6 KeyingAlpha AdjustColor KeyLuma KeyNon Red KeyUltra KeyDifference MatteRemove MatteImage Matte KeyTrack Matte Key Lumetri ColorBasic CorrectionHDR WhiteTemperatureTintExposureContrastHighlightsShadowsWhitesBlacksHDR SpecularSaturation KeyframesNext KeyframePrevious KeyframeAdd / Remove Video KeyframeAdd / Remove Audio Keyframe CurvesHDR Range Work AreaDurationStartColor CorrectionInput BlackInput WhiteGammaOutput BlackOutput WhiteZoomPlayheadFrame DurationSliders in After EffectsLayer PropertiesOpacityAudio LevelsColor CorrectionInput BlackInput WhiteGammaOutput BlackOutput WhitePlayheadFinal Cut Pro X Palette Gear Module OptionsIf you are an FCPX editor, you will be throughly disappointed in the Palette Gear. You really can’t do much, and it’s not worth the purchase if you are solely planning on using this for editing in Final Cut Pro X.Update: According to a representative at Palette, FCPX is still in Beta.Buttons in Final Cut Pro XFileNew ProjectNew EventImportEditCopyCutPasteUndoRedoAppend to StorylineAdd MarkerDelete Markers in SelectionToolSelect ToolTrim ToolPosition ToolRange Selection ToolBlade ToolZoom ToolHead ToolTrimBladeBlade AllTrim StartTrim EndTrim to PlayheadExtend EditPlayback/NavigationPlay/PausePlay SelectionPlay AroundPlay from BeginningPlay to EndPlay Full ScreenLoop PlaybackFast ForwardRewindGo ForwardGo BackwardGo Forward (10 Frames)Go Backward (10 Frames)Dials in Final Cut Pro XGeneralZoomGo to Next ItemAdjust Any PropertyEditVolumeGo to Previous/Next MarkerPlayback/NavigationMove PlayheadMove Playhead (10 frames)Nudge ClipNudge Clip (10 frames)Sliders in Final Cut Pro XNot Compatible with FCPX.Final ThoughtsThe Palette Gear may one day be a must-have tool for all creatives (specifically those in the Adobe Create Cloud), but right now it’s far more practical for photo editors and amateur colorists using Lumetri (the Palette is not yet compatible with DaVinci Resolve).I found that many of the editing tasks I perform are still faster with keyboard shortcuts. With the inability to really do anything in FCPX, it’s hard to recommend this panel for video editors.That said, if you are a video editor who also shoots photographs or handles amateur color work, you may find the tool helpful in other ways.Review equipment provided by Palette.Have you worked with the Palette Gear? Let us know in the comments.
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DefinitionAn ileostomy is an opening in your belly wall that is made during surgery.An ileostomy is used to move waste out of the body when the colon or rectum is not working properly.The word “ileostomy” comes from the words “ileum” and “stoma.” Your ileum is the lowest part of your small intestine. “Stoma” means “opening.” Your ileum will pass through a stoma after your surgery.Alternative NamesEnterostomyDescriptionBefore you have surgery to create an ileostomy, you may have surgery to remove all of your colon and rectum, or just part of your small intestine.These surgeries include:Small bowel resectionTotal abdominal colectomyTotal proctolectomy with ileostomyAn ileostomy may be used for a short or long time.When your ileostomy is short-term, it usually means all of your large intestine was removed but you still have at least part of your rectum. f you have surgery on part of your large intestine, your doctor may want the rest of your intestine to rest for a while. You will use the ileostomy while you recover from this surgery. When you do not need it anymore, you will have another surgery to reattach the ends of the small intestine, and you will no longer need the ileostomy.You will need to use it long-term ifall of your large intestine and rectum have been removed.To create the ileostomy, the surgeon makes a small surgical cut in the wall of your belly. Part of your small intestine that is farthest from your stomach is brought up and used to make an opening, called a stoma. When you look at your stoma, you are actually looking at the lining of your intestine. It looks a lot like the inside of your cheek.advertisementSometimes, an ileostomy is done as the first step in forming an ileal anal reservoir (called a J-pouch).Why the Procedure Is PerformedIleostomy is done when problems with your large intestine cannot be treated without surgery.Many different problems may lead to the need for this surgery. Some are:Inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis or Crohns disease), the most common reasonColon or rectal cancerA condition called familial polyposisBirth defects that involve your intestinesAn accident that damages your intestines or another intestinal emergencyRisksTalk with your doctor about these possible risks and complications.Risks for any surgery are:Wound infectionBlood clots in the legs that may travel to the lungsBreathing problemsHeart attack or strokeRisks for this surgery are:Bleeding inside your bellyDamage to nearby organsDehydration (not having enough fluid in your body) if there is a lot of watery drainage from your ileostomyDifficulty absorbing needed nutrients from foodInfection, including in the lungs, urinary tract, or bellyPoor healing of the wound in your perineum (if your rectum was removed)Scar tissue in your belly that causes a blockage in your intestinesWound breaks openBefore the ProcedureAlways tell your doctor or nurse what drugs you are taking, even drugs, supplements, or herbs you bought without a prescription.Before your surgery, talk with your doctor or nurse about the following things:Intimacy and sexualityPregnancySportsWorkDuring the 2 weeks before your surgery:Two weeks before surgery you may be asked to stop taking drugs that make it harder for your blood to clot. These include aspirin, ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin), Naprosyn (Aleve, Naproxen), and others.Ask your doctor which drugs you should still take on the day of your surgery.If you smoke, try to stop. Ask your doctor for help.Always let your doctor know about any cold, flu, fever, herpes breakout, or other illness you may have before your surgery.Eat high fiber foods and drink 6 to 8 glasses of water every day.The day before your surgery:Eat a light breakfast and lunch.You may be asked to drink only clear liquids such as broth, clear juice, and water after noon.Do NOT drink anything after midnight, including water. Sometimes you will not be able to drink anything for up to 12 hours before surgery.Your doctor or nurse may ask you to use enemas or laxatives to clear out your intestines. They will give you instructions.On the day of your surgery:Take the drugs your doctor told you to take with a small sip of water.Your doctor or nurse will tell you when to arrive at the hospital.After the ProcedureYou will be in the hospital for 3 to 7 days. You may have to stay longer if your ileostomy was an emergency operation.You may be able to suck on ice chips on the same day as your surgery to ease your thirst. By the next day, you will probably be allowed to drink clear liquids. Your doctor or nurse will slowly add thicker fluids and then soft foods as your bowels begin to work again. You may be eating again 2 days after your surgery.advertisementOutlook (Prognosis)Most people who have an ileostomy are able to do most of the activities they were doing before their surgery. This includes most sports, travel, gardening, hiking, and other outdoor activities, and most types of work.If you have a chronic condition, such as Crohns disease or ulcerative colitis, you may need ongoing medical treatment.ReferencesCima RR, Pemberton JH. Ileostomy, colostomy, and pouches. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Sleisenger MH, eds. Sleisenger & Fordtrans Gastrointestinal and Liver Disease. 9th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2010:chap 113.Fry RD, Mahmoud N, Maron DJ, Ross HM, Rombeau J. Colon and rectum. In: Townsend CM, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook of Surgery. 19th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2012:chap 52.Review Date:12/10/2012Reviewed By:George F. Longstreth, MD, Department of Gastroenterology, Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program, San Diego, California. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.