The modified common cold viruses behind high-profile COVID-19 vaccine candidates from China’s CanSino Biologics and Russia’s Gamaleya Institute have been studied for decades, but are still not widely used.The following are some details of their development, how they work and past and potential future uses: When were these viruses first used in medical research? Vectors are materials used as mechanisms to carry genetic information into human cells. Modified viruses that cannot replicate on their own and so will not cause infection can be used as vectors to carry genes from the target virus into human cells to induce an immune response against that virus.Ad5 vectors were tested in early gene therapy, which aims to install a missing gene or replace a mutated or damaged one. They were largely abandoned after an 18-year-old died in 1999 from an immune system overreaction after receiving a large dose during a gene therapy trial.Some researchers believe the strong immune response that caused problems with gene therapy makes these vectors well suited to vaccines, where much lower doses are used and a protective immune response is the objective.Have ad5 vectors been successful in the past?At McMaster University in Canada, Graham and collaborators developed a variety of Ad5 vectors, including for a rabies vaccine used on wild raccoons in the province of Ontario.He and other researchers began developing an Ad5-based vaccine against Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and published preclinical data. It was set aside when that pandemic ended.In 2011, CanSino licensed an experimental tuberculosis vaccine based on Ad5 from McMaster researchers.The Chinese company’s focus later shifted to an Ad5-based Ebola vaccine at the request of the Chinese military, according to Dr. Thomas Evans, current chief scientific officer at Vaccitech, who was involved with the tuberculosis project. The Ebola vaccine was approved for military use in 2017.Russia’s Gamaleya Research Institute, which developed Russia’s coronavirus vaccine, also used the Ad5 platform to develop an Ebola vaccine, which they said has been administered to about 2,100 people.What else is under development using ad5 vectors?In addition to the Ad5-based COVID-19 vaccines, an inhaled version of the experimental tuberculosis vaccine is still under development at McMaster, Dr. Zhou Xing told Reuters. His team is also in the early stages of developing an inhaled COVID-19 vaccine, testing Ad5 and another vector based on a chimpanzee adenovirus. Topics : The modified adenovirus type 5 (Ad5) viruses used in these vaccines grow in a human kidney cell line called HEK293 that was created by Canadian researcher Dr. Frank Graham at a Dutch lab in the 1970s and first used to make viral vectors in the 1980s.Graham planned to use HEK293 cells to study mechanisms underlying cancer, and distributed them to researchers all over the world.”The cells became tremendously widespread and popular” among researchers, said Graham, now retired in Italy.What are vectors used in vaccines and how do they work?
ELLSWORTH — The Ellsworth baseball team has gone three games without conceding a run following a shutout win over Foxcroft on Saturday and a doubleheader sweep of Washington Academy on Tuesday.In Foxcroft on Saturday, Ellsworth posted a 7-0 shutout behind pitcher Conner Wagstaff’s complete game. Wagstaff struck out eight batters for the Eagles, and Jackson Curtis, Jack Lee and Austin Baron had two hits apiece at the plate to lead the team to victory.At home against Washington Academy, Ellsworth posted an 8-0 win in the first game of the doubleheader before tagging the Raiders for 17 runs in the second game. The Eagles are now 5-1 on the season and fourth in the Class B North standings behind Mount Desert Island, Brewer and Nokomis.Softball beats WA twice, falls to FoxcroftThis is placeholder textThis is placeholder textThe Ellsworth softball team bookended a loss to Foxcroft on Saturday with wins over Washington Academy on Friday and Tuesday.In East Machias on Friday, Ellsworth smacked 15 hits in a 21-4 win over the Raiders. Sara Shea earned her first career win for the Eagles with five strikeouts and only one earned run and also led the team at the plate with four hits.Ellsworth lost to Foxcroft 6-2 on the road Saturday, but the Eagles quickly rebounded as Shea combined with Mackenzie Chipman to pitch a no-hitter in a 16-0 victory against Washington Academy on Tuesday. The team is now 2-2.
Jakob Lund Kristensen, RFRSHRFRSH Entertainment and global agency Lagardère Sports have agreed to ‘extend and adapt’ their current partnership, which sees Lagardère Sports becoming the company’s exclusive Partnership Sales House. The partnership entails all sales promotion around the global CS:GO tournament BLAST Pro Series, which has dates in Copenhagen and now Istanbul for the first time. This also covers the two esports teams managed and operated by RFRSH; Astralis and Heroic.The partnership between the two companies began back in 2017 for the BLAST Pro Series that year. BLAST Pro Series is a six-team, single-day CS:GO tournament series which will be Istanbul’s first major event of this type when it takes place in June this year. Jakob Lund Kristensen, Co-Founder and EVP of Sales at RFRSH Entertainment, commented: ”We are very pleased about the partnership with Lagardère Sports on the sales side. RFRSH Entertainment has built a unique position through the way we produce, operate and communicate around our tournaments and teams.“We invest significant resources in building and developing properties catering for both the hard core fan, but also, and to a much larger extent than anybody else, to the vast mainstream audience and fans of competitive entertainment in general. In this connection, Lagardère Sports and RFRSH is a perfect match, and we really look forward to taking full advantage of Lagardère Sports’ expertise in Partnership and Media sales.”Lund Kristensen recently came to speak at our own ESI Super Forum, a one day event focused on the crossover of sports and esports, which we held at Stamford Bridge on March 22nd. RFRSH is set to open an office in London in the near future, and we discussed the company’s expansion plans, brands in esports and more below:Dr. Nicolas Gaede, Senior Vice President Esports at Lagardère Sports, had this to say of the partnership: “We’re thrilled about this next step within our partnership with RFRSH Entertainment, because it is the product of a great process: We started off with our initial collaboration focused on media distribution in 2017 and since than we have established a truly valuable and trusting partnership which we enlarge and enrich to the next level now.“Moreover, I am particularly excited about our involvement around the BLAST Pro Series, because this project is a promising and highly appealing next step regarding the combination of entertainment and action-packed sport. Fans, rights holders, brands, the esports industry itself and the interested mainstream audience – everybody benefits from this high quality format.”Esports Insider says: Lagardère Sports is a huge sporting agency which has been doing some great work in esports with the likes of Unicorns of Love, SK Gaming and more. The expansion and extension of this agreement makes sense for RFRSH and will mean they can focus less on the commercial side and more on the delivery of more top range CS:GO tournaments, and the operations of Astralis and Heroic.