By Dialogo March 04, 2011 Good workâ€¦ During a firefight, the last thing a machine gunner wants to do is stop fighting to change barrels, but that’s how it has always been done with standard, single steel-barrel machine guns. The reason for the barrel change is that at high temperatures barrels lose “strength properties,” according to engineers working on a promising alternative. One of the engineers is Vinny Leto, systems project engineer, of the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center, or ARDEC, Weapons System Technology Directorate. During a test firing of a proof-of-concept barrel in December, Leto witnessed a measure of success with the High Performance Alloys for Weapons Applications Project. During testing, the first rifled, cobalt-alloy machine gun barrel ever produced using the “flow forming” process consistently reached high temperatures without degraded performance. The proof-of-concept barrel was made of an alloy that contains more than 50 percent of the metal cobalt. Cobalt alloys are erosion- and corrosion-resistant metals that are designed to retain high strength during long-term exposure to high temperatures. Cobalt alloys are frequently used in the aerospace industry, such as the hot-gas section of turbine engines, explained Leto. Cobalt alloys are also used as short liners for machine gun barrels. “If you look at steel in a machine gun environment, it gets very hot at a high rate of fire,” said Leto. “The benefit of the cobalt alloy is that it is designed to operate in high-temperature, high-stress environments. It has the added benefits of corrosion and erosion resistance.” While cobalt alloy barrel liners have been produced for years, it is very difficult with existing machining techniques to impart rifling. “The material, for all of its phenomenal properties, is very difficult to manufacture and machine,” said Leto. Different from machining, flow-forming is an advanced process used to manufacture precise cylindrical components. The process consists of high-pressure rollers exerting pressure on the exterior of a cylinder, pressing material against a rod-called a mandrel-on the interior of the cylinder. For this project, the flow-forming process was modified to produce the rifling in the barrel bore. More testing and data gathering will be required before engineers know if flow forming manufacturing can be achieved with the alloy. Success, however, would provide war fighters with three potential benefits: lightening their load, increasing barrel service life, and giving them a barrel that could operate at higher temperatures compared to a steel barrel, Leto said. Soldiers and Marines typically carry spare barrels into battle so that they have a cool barrel to exchange if they engage the enemy in a firefight, explained Leto. Having that strength at higher temperatures means that barrels may not need to be changed during a firefight, eliminating the need for the extra barrel and maintaining a steady stream of firepower. Engineering team members met all of their proof-of-concept test objectives when they fired more than 24,000 rounds and achieved an 1,100 degrees barrel temperature. Leto said the alloy barrel was fired from the ARDEC-designed Advanced Remote/Robotic Armament System. Steel begins to lose strength at approximately 1,000 degrees, Leto noted, and the test yielded data needed to assess and design the next round of improvements. The team is planning to produce another prototype that will be fired from a fielded infantry weapon later this year. Previously, the engineers had produced a half-length barrel as an initial demonstration of the flow-forming process before moving on to manufacturing full-length barrels. The Office of Naval Research assigned the engineers as principal investigators into the flow forming manufacturing technology. They are leveraging ARDEC’s expertise with metallurgy and small arms design and analysis. Prototype testing will be conducted here at the Armament Technology Facility, which is ARDEC’s small arms design and evaluation facility. Previously, the engineers had worked with the Office of Naval Research in development of lightweight 60mm and 81mm mortar tubes made with a nickel-based alloy. The team is also working with the Joint Services Small Arms Program, which is also based at Picatinny Arsenal. The JSSAP office oversees the day-to-day implementation of the plan by the joint services regarding the development and investment in small-arms technologies.
For this news app, ProPublica compared New York counties’ cumulative tobacco securitization proceeds to actual and projected payments under the national tobacco settlement of 1998. The app allows users to explore different scenarios for the payments over time and see how long it takes for the payments to match or exceed the proceeds counties received from “securitizing” — that is, selling their stream of tobacco settlement money to debt investors in return for upfront cash.Because securitization involves taking a discounted lump-sum payment upfront in return for future tobacco payments, such deals by definition meant counties would receive less settlement money than they would if they collected year-by-year. This concept is known as the “time value of money” and it basically reflects the fact that a dollar received today is worth more than a dollar tomorrow because it can be invested to earn interest.However, the amount of the discount was not just a factor of time. It also reflected much interest investors demanded to be paid in return for buying bonds payable from counties’ annual settlement money; after all, if payments fell, there might not be enough money to repay the debt. As noted in research by Craig Johnson, associate professor of public finance at Indiana University in Bloomington, the decision to securitize led many governments to “pay a high premium” to investors willing to take on this risk.The size of the premium is reflected in the dollar difference between the cumulative payments counties could have received if they collected year-by-year and what they ended up getting under their securitization deals. The bigger the gap, the more likely it is that the county overestimated the riskiness of the annual payments and paid too much interest to investors on its upfront borrowing against the settlement money. The smaller the gap, the more likely it is that the county priced the risk correctly and received more money for taxpayers out of the securitization.Here is how the app came together:We obtained historical tobacco settlement payment data from the New York Attorney General’s Office, which tracks the annual payments from tobacco companies to the state, New York City (which comprises five counties), and the remaining 57 counties that receive the money. The data includes the actual payment received by each county through 2014 and closely matches national-level data tracked by the National Association of Attorneys General.ProPublica projected future payments to the counties using a cash flow model disclosed in a bond prospectus for the most recent tobacco securitization completed in New York state, Niagara County’s $44.3 million tobacco bond sale, which closed on Sept. 24, 2014. The model projected annual payments due to New York through 2040, taking into account inflation and other adjustments, such as an assumed average annual cigarette consumption decline of 3 percent as forecast by the consulting firm IHS Global Insight.These underwriting assumptions could prove wrong: In the past, cigarette consumption — a major driver of the annual tobacco settlement payments — has decreased more than predicted by IHS for various tobacco bond deals, many of which are now headed for default. To account for this, our app allows users to explore the effect of more pessimistic average annual cigarette consumption declines of 4 percent and 5 percent, based on projections by Herbert J. Sims & Co., a brokerage firm that tracks tobacco bonds. To account for the time value of future payments, the app also allows users to dial in a discount factor, which reflects the interest rate at which the money could be invested over time. The higher the interest rate, the less counties’ future payments are worth today. Users can select from a range of 0 to 8 percent annual interest.Since securitization proceeds were most commonly used to fund capital projects that would otherwise have to be funded using municipal debt, the discount rate also reflects the opportunity cost to governments of accepting the annual payments, instead of securitizing them. The discount rate defaults to 4 percent, which reflects the 30-year interest rate for municipal borrowing by BAA-rated government issuers as of early October 2014, based data from the Thomson Reuters Municipal Market Monitor.We identified the 40 New York counties (including five in New York City) that securitized using data from Thomson Reuters, the Municipal Securities Rulemaking Board’s EMMA database, and interviews with county officials. Proceeds received from the tobacco bonds they sold were plotted using amounts disclosed in official statements for each transaction. In cases of partial refundings — transactions which used a portion of the money raised to repay previously-issued bonds — ProPublica only counted the net new proceeds obtained by the counties. The amounts are a conservative estimate of what the counties received, since they not do account for transaction fees and other deductions from the proceeds, such as funding reserve accounts for bond investors.Most counties securitized 100 percent of their annual payments. That means all their future tobacco money was pledged to investors until the bonds are repaid. In cases where counties securitized less than 100 percent of their payments, ProPublica added the remainder to the counties’ cumulative receipts.The bond issuers typically used “residual” structures in early securitization deals done in 1999, 2000 and 2001. These entitled them to receive any settlement money left after meeting required annual principal and interest payments on their outstanding tobacco bonds. Most of these residual payments ceased in 2004; ProPublica excluded residual payments from its analysis. In later securitizations, counties primarily utilized “turbo” structures, which reserved any leftover settlement money for repayment of the debt, rather than letting county governments keep it. That way, debt repayment would accelerate, returning the payment streams to the county governments sooner.ProPublica did not attempt to predict when the counties’ tobacco bonds might get paid off. But given that cigarette sales are falling more than expected when most of the deals were done, many of the counties’ tobacco bonds are now unlikely to repay ahead of their final maturities, even under “turbo” structures. While maturity dates vary, all of the counties have at least some tobacco bonds that aren’t due until after 2040, the last year in the cash flow model disclosed in recent securitization done by Niagara County.ProPublica is a Pulitzer Prize-winning investigative newsroom. 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Submitted to Sumner Newscow â€” Todayâ€™s Wellington High School bulletin for Friday, Dec. 4, 2015:Friday â€¢National Honor Society winter formal.Saturdayâ€¢Wrestling at El Dorado, 9 a.m.â€¢JV wrestling at Winfield, 9 a.m.â€¢Crusader Carol at 6:30 p.m.Todayâ€™s Lunch â€”Â Chicken Pattie, Mashed Potatoes with Gravy, Green Beans, Pineapple Chunks, Hot Roll and MilkMondayâ€™s Lunch â€” Taco Soup, Tortilla Chips, Fresh Broccoli, Chilled Pears, Snickerdoodle and MilkTodayâ€™s News: *Congratulations to the November Students of the Month:9th- Jacob Friesen10th- Hudson Ramirez11th- J.J Mayo12th- Allison McCue*Classic Movie Club will be showing the movie “The Sand Pebbles” on Tuesday at 3:30 in Room 208.*Mrs. Defore’s 7th hour Crusader Way class would like for everyone to wear Pink on Monday to help raise awareness for breast cancer.*The Crusader Christmas Carol has been sold out! The WHS Choir and Madrigals have been working hard for their upcoming dinner concert on Saturday night.*The WHS food drive will be December 3rd through 10th. Please bring non-perishable food items to Mrs. Defore’s room, Rom 208. Please bring your items to help the less fortunate eat this winter.*Dancing with the Teachers will be on December 12th at 5:00 in the auditorium.*Crusaders of the Stage present World War II Radio Christmas. You can see the Live Radio Play on December 10th at 7:00 in the High School Auditorium. Admission is $2 or you can bring 2 non perishable canned goods.*The 5th Hour Crusader Way class is asking for your help to make children (ages 0-6) feel safe when they sleep. They are taking donations of children’s books, small toys, blankets, pillow cases and pillows. You can put your donations in a box in the commons until December 7th.*Attention students interested in joining Winter Color Guard: Your paperwork needs to be turned in to Ms. Vaughn this week in order to participate in tryouts next week.*Students that are interested in working the Wellington Wrestling Tournament onÂ Dec. 12th…please see Mr. Buchanan.Â Students will get paid for working.*Its’ not too late to sign up to go on the 2017 Spain Trip. Sign up soon to receive a $200 discount! If you have any questions, please see Mrs. Groom.*Attention Wellington High students!Â Do you enjoy photography?Â Are you a great photographer?Â A photography contest is takingÂ place now!Â The subject of your photographs can be anything thatÂ screams Wellington. Photos must be taken by you this semester.Â File size must be at least 16 x 20 inches and cannot be taken with a camera phone. Only 3 entries per person.Â Winners photosÂ will be printed and used to decorate USD 353 central offices.Â Deadline isÂ Dec 20!Â There will be cash prizes! Please submit digital files to Mrs. Groom.*NHS is hosting the winter formal dance on December 4th- 8:30 pm to 11pm. Admission is $5 , or you can bring 5 non perishable items. There be a concession stand available.Fun Fact of the Day:According to the Guinness world records, the tallest Christmas tree ever cut was a 221 foot tall Douglas Fir that was displayed in 1950 at the Northgate shopping center in Seattle Washington.Follow us on Twitter. Close Forgot password? Please put in your email: Send me my password! Close message Login This blog post All blog posts Subscribe to this blog post’s comments through… RSS Feed Subscribe via email Subscribe Subscribe to this blog’s comments through… RSS Feed Subscribe via email Subscribe Follow the discussion Comments Logging you in… Close Login to IntenseDebate Or create an account Username or Email: Password: Forgot login? Cancel Login Close WordPress.com Username or Email: Password: Lost your password? Cancel Login Dashboard | Edit profile | Logout Logged in as Admin Options Disable comments for this page Save Settings You are about to flag this comment as being inappropriate. Please explain why you are flagging this comment in the text box below and submit your report. The blog admin will be notified. Thank you for your input. There are no comments posted yet. Be the first one! Post a new comment Enter text right here! Comment as a Guest, or login: Login to IntenseDebate Login to WordPress.com Login to Twitter Go back Tweet this comment Connected as (Logout) Email (optional) Not displayed publicly. Name Email Website (optional) Displayed next to your comments. Not displayed publicly. If you have a website, link to it here. Posting anonymously. Tweet this comment Submit Comment Subscribe to None Replies All new comments Comments by IntenseDebate Enter text right here! Reply as a Guest, or login: Login to IntenseDebate Login to WordPress.com Login to Twitter Go back Tweet this comment Connected as (Logout) Email (optional) Not displayed publicly. Name Email Website (optional) Displayed next to your comments. Not displayed publicly. If you have a website, link to it here. Posting anonymously. Tweet this comment Cancel Submit Comment Subscribe to None Replies All new comments
CHETWYND, B.C. – The Chetwynd Fire Department responded to a townhouse fire Wednesday night.On June 15, 2016 at about 9:45 pm, the Chetwynd Fire Department responded to a townhouse fire at 5100-53rd Street.It was reported that one person remained in the house and a second person had thrown herself from the upstairs window. The fire department found the upstairs totally ablaze and extinguished the fire before entering the home.- Advertisement -No person was found in the house after extensive searches and the woman who threw herself from the window was taken to the hospital.The fire was extinguished and it was later revealed that the youth who was reported missing returned to the home and was arrested by police. The fire is of suspicious and the RCMP are investigating.